Pacifism versus Patriotism:
The Debate Over American Militarism, 1921-1930


A. See William Appleman Williams, The Roots of the Modern American Empire and Richard D. Challener, Admirals, Generals, and American Foreign Policy, 1898-1914 to learn more about United States foreign policy before World War I.

B. See Frederick S. Calhoun, Uses of Force and Wilsonian Foreign Policy for more information on the decision to intervene in World War I and American military involvement afterward.

C. See Carrie A. Foster, The Women and the Warriors: The US Section of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, 1915-1946 for a complete history of the early years of the WPP and the WILPF.

D. Margaret Gibbs, The DAR (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1969), 20.

E. See, for example, "Women to Train as Practical Farmers," DAR Magazine (April 1918), 214-216; "War Medals of the Allies," and "Uncle Sam Trains Sea Cooks for His New Merchant Ships," DAR Magazine (October 1918).

F. See Frances H. Early, A World Without War: How U.S. Feminists and Pacifists Resisted World War I, Ch. 6, for more information on attacks on pacifists during the Red Scare.

G. Revolutionary Radicalism: Its History, Purpose, and Tactics, With an Exposition and Discussion of the Steps Being Taken and Required to Curb It, Report of the Joint Legislative Committee Investigating Seditious Activities, Filed April 24, 1920 in the Senate of the State of New York (Albany: J.B. Lyon Co. Publishers, 1920), 971.

H. Ibid., 1525.

I. Roger Dingman, Power in the Pacific: The Origins of Naval Arms Control, 1914-1922 (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1976), 216.

J. Ibid., 4.

K. Richard W. Fanning, Peace and Disarmament: Naval Rivalry and Arms Control, 1922-1933 (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1995), 6.

L. Ibid., 12-18.

M. Foster, 50-52.

N. See Harriet Hyman Alonso, The Women's Peace Union and the Outlawry of War, 1921-1942 for more information on the WPU which did require a Slacker's Oath in the 1920s.

O. Jane Addams to Emily Greene Balch, May 31, 1927. Swarthmore College Peace Collection, Emily Greene Balch Papers, (Jane Addams Papers Microfilm reel 18, frame 1859)

P. Alonso, 1.

Q. Ibid., xviii.

R. See Richard Fanning, Ch. 5 for more on the failed Geneva Conference and the pacifists' reaction.

S. See Helen Tufts Bailie, "Truth and Justice vs. the DAR Court Martial," June 23, 1928, Swarthmore College Peace Collection, Jane Addams Papers, Series 1 (Jane Addams Papers Microfilm reel 20, frames 22-23) and Gibbs, 122-134 for more information on Bailie's protest and expulsion.

T. Mrs. William Sherman Walker, "Synopsis of Chapter Programs: National Defense Committee, Year 1929-1930," DAR Magazine (September 1929), 565-567.

U. Mrs. William Sherman Walker. "Annual Report of Mrs. William Sherman Walker, Chairman, National Defense Committee, to the Thirty-eighth Continental Congress," DAR Magazine (May 1929), 291-92.

V. See Fanning, ch. 6 for more information on the London Naval Conference of 1930.


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